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Groep(en) van Internationale Communisten (1928-1944)
The “Aim” first published in 1930; signed by “Groups of Cooperating Council Communists”, also including the l.a.o.
It did not adopt a platform or statutes, just a short “Aim” (“Doelstelling”, since 1930). It started publishing regularly in 1928 in both Dutch and German, while from 1934 onwards some English translations were published in the International Council Correspondence (translated from German). By 1930 there were some twenty participants, mostly former k.a.p.n.-members and most of the Amsterdam’ former k.a.j.-members (the youth organisation of the k.a.p.n.), growing to some fourty, the new being mostly younger with little political background; for them the g.i.c. was foremost a solid “school” in critical and scientific thinking. With Amsterdam as its centre, there were also small “sections” – or rather contacts or correspondents – in The Hague (’s-Gravenhage, Den Haag), Leyde (Leiden), Enschede and Groningen, which tended to have dynamics of their own and reproached the Amsterdam’ g.i.c. to be too “theoretical”; thus “groups” became “group” as early as February 1934. Within Amsterdam, the same tendency appeared in 1934 with the publication of Discussie, later Proletenstemmen and also Actie!, which remained however linked to the g.i.c.
In the beginning, the g.i.c. defined itself as “international”, as opposed to stalinist “national” communists (with proletarian internationalism as key question); gradually the focus went to “council” communism (the expression appeared probably for the first time in 1930, see the “Aim” above) as opposed to “party” (or “state”) communism (thus rather stressing the form of struggle, leading to the disdaining brandmark “councilism”).
Although publication, by lack of means and preparation, was discontinued with the German occupation of the Netherlands in May 1940, the personal ties persisted; just like participation in “illegal” activities; often “underground” and without any income.
Faced with the inevitability of a new world war (which the g.i.c. clearly pronounced as early as 1930, and with more insistence in 1932), there was some, yet fundamental, accordance with a part of the very “partyist” m.l.l.-front: in 1941 support for the Soviet-Union was given up by several of the latter (including Henk Sneevliet and Ab Menist) which led to the need of retrospective clarification and the “late discovery of council communism” (Wim Bot) opposed to those who joined the “trotskyists” of the “IVth International” of Ernest Mandel, who considered that the Allied camp had become a “lesser evil” to be supported against Nazism, that is: after the assasination in 1940 of Leon Trotsky, who himself had remained an internationalist.
The peculiar situation evolved in which what remained of the internationalist “partyists” of the m.l.l.-front started to work together with the “council communists” of the former g.i.c., who were invited to contribute to the discussion within the Communistenbond “Spartacus”; many of the paticipants of the g.i.c. gradually joined the Bond by the end of 1944 and the beginning of 1945, thus before the end of the war.
Foreseeable organisational tensions and disagreements made most former g.i.c. participants to leave “Spartacus” in 1947, some twenty of them still active; an effort to produce a new magazine Radencommunisme soon failed; the participants were dispersed and most gave up political activities. Of the former g.i.c. paticipants only Jan and Lea Appel (who soon after had to give up political activities), Theo Maassen and Theo van de Heuvel remained within “Spartacus”, a circumstance which left the political heritage of the g.i.c. in the hands of “Spartacus”, without any capacity to elaborate it much further or to adapt it to a very different new social contect.
The g.i.c. presented its publications as the products of common discussion; as a matter of principles, articles were published without a signature (and it was also safer!). Anton Pannekoek however marked the texts he had written in his copy of the publication, and of several other texts the writers can be identified. Still, most participant names remained obscure, particularly when they did not contribute much by writing, and an effort has been made to identify them so that those who assured the more “material” organisational tasks will not remain anonymous.
The following list of fourty participants (probably quite complete) was composed of names found in the g.i.c.-press, literature on the g.i.c., from “Daad en Gedachte”, and most of all completed with a list of names provided by Jan and Lea Appel in ±1983, and then further completed from other sources (giving no new names), like personal communications of family members; information from civil records (
A provisional conclusion might be that the group certainly was not composed of highly educated “intellectuals”; in fact there were few; it was rather a mixture of formally uneducated but well self-instructed (“auto-didactic”) workers with few “academics”, with in between some over-representation of teachers with a working class background.
More information, like personal memories, and references to printed and other sources, and of course also pictures, it is all highly appreciated.
– Agen, Age van (1896-1973); Amsterdam, merchant, worker; member of the k.a.p.n., agitator among the unemployed, most of all inspirator of the seperate Proletenstemmen; co-author/editor of the Roodboek on Marinus van der Lubbe (1); son of Jan van Agen, merchant, and Annigje Steenbergen; married 1920 in Lonneker (Overijssel) Luutske Nijdam, assistent druggist (apothekersassistente); divorce Enschede 1936, they had a daughter Ann van Agen (1923-); remarried 1938 Fie Zegerius; adopting Rudy Bremer in 1943 (2), thus saving his life.
Bruun van Albada, ca. 1955; source: http://tri.astraatmadja.org .
– Albada, Gale Bruno van (Bruun, 1912-1972); son of Bruno Lieuwes van Albada, medical army docter, and lady (jonkvrouw) Johanna Antonia van Rappard; astronomer, pupil of Anton Pannekoek in Amsterdam, marries 1938 Lea Berreklouw, divorce 1949, in 1950 remarries Elsa van Dien (1914-2007) (3), likewise astronomer and pupil of Anton Pannekoek; they moved to Indonesia 1949-1958 were he became director of the Bosscha Observatory; brother of Piet and Lucie van Albada (4); translated, with Elsa van Dien, Lenin as Philosopher into Dutch, published 1974 (5).
Piet van Albada, ca. 1930; source: Wiskrant f.
– Albada, Piet van (1905-1997); son of Bruno Lieuwes van Albada, medical army docter, and lady (jonkvrouw) Johanna Antonia van Rappard; studied Leiden mathematics, physics and astronomy, pupil of the marxist mathematician Dirk Struik; was also in contact with the l.a.o. and Marinus van der Lubbe; married Lucia Joustra in 1933 and moved to Groningen, were he left the g.i.c. after divergencies; 1939-1951 teacher of mathematics in Rotterdam, 1951-1958 professor of mathematics at the University of Padjajaran (Bandung, Indonesia), 1958-1970 head scientific civil servant at Eindhoven, 1964-1966 and after being pensioned professor at the University of Nigeria in Nsukka (6); later member of the Comité Van der Lubbe; mentioned on a police-list of left-extremists in 1939; brother of Bruun and Lucie van Albada (7).
– Appel, Johannes Joachim Wilhelm (Jan, 1890-1985, ps. Max Hempel, Jan Arndt, Jan Vos, Jan de Bruin, 1890-1985); Amsterdam; qualified shipbuilder; founding participant of the g.i.c., since 1947 partner of Lea Berreklouw, also see: Jan Appel; main author of the Grondbeginselen van de communistische productie en distributie.
– Beer, Herman de (1871-1936); Amsterdam; travelling salesman (handelsreiziger), real estate agent (makelaar), member of the k.a.p.n., main author of De beweging van het kapitalistisch bedrijfsleven, 1932; son of Abraham Mozes de Beer, shopkeeper (winkelier) and Judik Heertjes; married 1896 Sara de Vries (1868-murdered Auschwitz 1943), one son and two daughters: Benjamin (1897-), Lea (1899-murdered Auschwitz 1943) and Judith (1902-) (8).
– Berreklouw, Lea (1914-1997); speech therapist (logopediste), writer, Amsterdam, participant since 1936, marries 1938 Bruun van Albada, divorce 1949; since 1947 partner of Jan Appel, marries him 1956, then moving to Maastricht (9); daughter of Hartog Berreklouw (1876-murdered Sobibor, 1943) and Christina Tas (1880-murdered Sobibor, 1943); she had a son Robert van Albada (Rob, 1939-).
– Bianchetti, Bernardo Antonio (Broer, 1906-±1980); Amsterdam, machine bencher (machinebankwerker); son of Bernardo Antonio Bianchetti and Antonia Johanna Maassen, married 1929 Sylva Castleton (from New York), divorce 1936; brother of Ans, Theo Maassen was his uncle (10).
– Bianchetti, Maria Antonia Johanna (Ans, 1909-); Amsterdam; daughter of Bernardo Antonio Bianchetti and Antonia Johanna Maassen, married 1930 Friedrich Wilhelm Ströecker, book keeper, divorce 1956, sister of Broer, Theo Maassen was her uncle.
– Canne Meijer, Hendrik (Henk, 1890-1962); Amsterdam; first benchman travelling through Europe, since 1914 teacher, member of the s.d.a.p., s.d.p., k.a.p.n. (left in 1924); founding participant of the g.i.c., see Henk Canne Meijer.
– Coerman, Piet (1890-1962); teacher, Bussum, member of s.d.a.p., s.d.p., k.a.p.n., founding participantff of the g.i.c.; close friend of Herman Gorter.
Elly van Gelder; source: Allemaal familie .
– Gotjé, Henri (Han, Mülheim, 1885-1962), Amsterdam; fire maker (vuurstoker), driver (chauffeur), married 1907 Maria Jacoba Zegerius (1889-1976, a sister of Fie Zegerius), divorce 1927; remarried 1930 Trijntje Bos; son of Ludovicus Josephus Gotjé and Henrietta Christina Everdina Burger (12).
Wim Haagen; source: Allemaal familie .
– Haagen, Willem Gerardus (Wim, 1910-Langenstein, Konzentrationsanlager Zwieberge, 1945), participant since 1935, painter (artist), furniture maker (meubelmaker), brother of Leo Haagen, married Tonny de Vink in 1935, divorce 1942; they had a son Roland (1937-); since 1941 living with Elly van Gelder, son of Jan Willem Haagen, Tailor (kleermaker) and Magdalena Geertruida van Vught (Lena).
Wim Haagen, Elly van Gelder en Leo Haagen; source: Allemaal familie .
Leo Haagen en An van Wereld; source: Allemaal familie .
– Haagen, Leo Eugenius (Leo, 1911-1988), participant since 1935, wrote for Proletenstemmen; kapper, begrafenisondernemer, handelsreiziger in manufacturen, brother of Wim Haagen, married 1933 Margaretha de Vink (Greetje), a sister of Tonny de Vink, divorce 1936, they had two children, Antje and Bob; he remarried 1954 Anna Hermina van Wereld (1926-2005), one child; son of Jan Willem Haagen, tailor (kleermaker) and Magdalena Geertruida van Vught (Lena); he had a sister Dorothea Gerarda Haagen (Door, 1912-2006), who married 1934 David de Vink (Daaf, 1912-1994), a brother of Tonny de Vink (these emigrated to Australia).
– Hellingman, Maria Engelina (Mien) (1895-1954), speech therapist (spraaklerares) at a music-school, Amsterdam, daughter of Johannes Egbertus Hellingman, agent insurances (verzekeringsagent), and Johanna aria Weltman; married 1923 the writer Maurits Dekker (1896-1962); their two children from a free mariage were then recognised; befriended to Henk Canne Meijer and his wive Gé.
– Heuvel, Theodorus Franciscus van den (Theo, 1891-1976); Amsterdam, later Spartacus, in 1964 founding participant of Daad en Gedachte (13), marries, probably Muhlheim, 1916 Judith Gerada Hubertina Giesbertz (Kessel, 1891-), daughter of Renier Giesbertz en Gertrudis Kuijpers.
– Hobijn, Johannes Lambertus (Jan, 1904-); Amsterdam, worker, driver; the “driving force” behind manifestos and leaflets 1934-1936 which he typed and mimeographed (Collectie Canne Meijer, map 248); married 1929 Hendrika Maria Catharina Metz (1908-); son of Wilhelm Hobijn (1881-), workman, and Marianne Pauel (1883-1929); they had a son Johan (14).
– Holtwijk, Wim (15)
– Jordens, Gerrit David (1877-1957); Zwolle, mechanical engineer (werktuigbouwkundig ingenieur), president of the local section of the k.a.p.n.; one of the the first g.i.c.-participants; although seriously ill since 1930, he remained in contact; son of Daniel Jacob Rudolph Jordens, bookkeeper, and Willemina Henriette Elisabeth Molenkamp; marries 1903 Anna Geertruida de Bruijn (1881-1946); children: Erik (born and died 1904), Wilhelmina Henriette Elizabeth (1906-1921), Erik (1908-), Helena Henriette Gerdina (1910-); his archives are conserved in the i.i.s.g. ; also
– Joustra, Lucia (1903-1985); studied Leiden, medical doctor, married Piet van Albada in 1933; left the g.i.c. with her husband in 1936 after divergencies; mentioned on a police-list of left-extremists in 1939.
– Krans, Jan Jans (1907-); Amsterdam; postal address Werkgroepen van Raden-Kommunisten (=Proletenstemmen), then lived Ruysdaelkade, 93-III; carpenter (timmerman), married 1930 Wilhelmina Altelaar (1908-); they had a son Willem Gerrit (1933-); son of Willem Gerrit Krans, postal office employee (kantoorknecht posterijen), en Elisabeth Westerveld (16).
– Leereveld, Han; brother of Marcel Leereveld.
Marcel Leereveld, 2015; source: Edukado.net .
– Leereveld, Marcel (1917-); Amsterdam, Blaricum, language teacher French, German, Indonesian and Esperanto, translator for Klasbatalo since 1937, emigrated to Indonesia after 1947 and then to Melbourne, Australia in 1952, translated in 1978 Pannekoek’s Anthropogeneses towards Esperanto (17); married Alida (1922-2014), two children; brother of Han Leereveld.
– Maassen, Theo (1891-1974); teacher, Amsterdam, excluded from the s.d.a.p., the s.d.p., the k.a.p.n., the g.i.c. and “Spartacus”, he was not however a founding participant of the g.i.c.; during the Second World War confined in Kamp Amersfoort, in 1944 he first collaborated with “Spartacus”, then became a member; in 1964 he was a founding participant of Daad en Gedachte; its “master and exemple” (18).
– Meijer, Johan Ernst, (Jan, 1893-), Amsterdam; car driver (karrijder); mentioned in 1937-1939 as postal address for the p.i.c., living Chasséstraat 11-III, Amsterdam-West; marries 1915 Maria Hendrika van Dam, divorce 1945; children: Johan Ernst (1916-), Maria Hendrika (1918-), Nicolaas (1920-), Hendrik Johan (1926-) Anna Maria Elisabeth (1930-) and Johanna Catharine (1933-); son of Nicolaas Meijer, boat worker (bootwerker), and Anna Maria Marree (19).
– Nottrot, Evert Hendrik (Evert, Kampen, 1897-1968), Amsterdam, married 1923 Margaretha Wilhelmina Harke (1897-1968); four children: Johannes Lambertus (1924-), Evert Hendrik Cornelis (1925-), Anton Cornelis (1931-) and Margaretha Wilhelmina (1933-); son of Johannes Lambertus Nottrot, cigar maker, and Zwaantje Kuiper (20)
Ben Sijes, 1965; source: Wikipedia (nl).
– Sijes, Ben Aäron (1908-1981); Amsterdam; welder (lasser), after 1945 historian, participant of the g.i.c. since 1934 (21); son of Aäron Sijes (1880-mudered Auschwitz, 1942), cigarmaker, and Judith Pais (1880-murdered Sobibor, 1943) (22); marries 1938 Greetje van der Hulst; they adopted Isaäk Meents (1935-) in 1945, only child of Ben Sijes’ sister Rebecca Sijes and Maurits Meents, both murdered in Sobibor, 1943; own children: Ruben (1948-) and Martin (1950-).
– Smole, Leo; Amsterdam (23)
– Spierenburg, Wim (Willem, 1914-1985); Amsterdam, in 1934 office employee (kantoorbediende) in 1943 doorkeeper (portier), worked after the Second World War as correspondent and stenographer for the social-democrat Arbeiderspers, later as corrector at Het Vrije Volk; initially member of the social-democrat “Arbeiders Jeugd Centrale” and studied h.b.s. (higher secondary school); member of the o.s.p. 1932-1935, drafted in the Dutch army in 1934-1935; in 1937-1938 he fought on the Aragon-Front during the Spanisch Civil-war; then participant of the g.i.c.; in 1945 member of Spartacus, and with Henk Canne Meijer member of the “Buro voor Internationale Kontakten”, as such present at an International Conference in Brussels; he spoke and wrote at least Esperanto, French and Spanish; he was the only child of the bookseller Willem Spierenburg and Geertruida Schuilenburg and married 1940 Hendrika Johanna van Beek; they had four children.
– Stokvis, Hendrik (Henk, ps. H. Pasman, 1874-), Amsterdam, furniture maker (meubelmaker), son of Eduard Gerardus Stokvis, cupper turner (koperdraaier), and Antje Böckmann; marries Amsterdam, B.S., 1903 Anna Pasman, daughter of Jan Pasman and Alletje Helmig, divorce 1957; they had a son Eduard Gerardus (1903-1904-) and a daughter Alida (1906-); in 1948 postal address for Radencommunisme, then living Van Hogendorpstraat 132-I, Amsterdam (24).
Abraham Verduin, ±1940, source: joodsmonument.nl (more photo’s there).
– Verduin, Abraham (1902-murdered Auschwitz, 1945), Amsterdam, manufacturer of hats, born Borgerhout (Belgium), secretary youth group k.a.p.n., on police lists of the c.i.d., 1924 and 1930; marries 1923 Anna Vijevano (1900-1997), boekhoudster; children: Wanda (1925-murdered Auschwitz, 1944), Ernst (1927-); son van Isaac Verduin, diamond cutter, and Rachel Stijsel (both murdered in Auschwitz); brother of Bernard Verduin (25).
– Verduin, Bernard (Ben) (1900-1972), Amsterdam, journalist; member of the k.a.p.n., co-author of the Roodboek on Marinus van der Lubbe; married Betje Hillesum (1901-1924); she wrote a diary which was continued after her death by Bernard Verduin; after 1931 he remarried Nelly Knikker (1890-1971); two children: Bernard (Bob, 1921, glassblower, murdered Buchenwald, 1945), Frits (1923, advertising painter, in hiding with Rinus Pelgrom, murdered Auschwitz, 1944); son of Isaac Verduin, diamond cutter (diamantslijper) and Rachel Bernadina Stijsel (both murdered in Auschwitz); brother of Abraham Verduin (26).
– Vink, Izaäk de (ps. Koos, 1902-1964); Leiden, married 1939 Maria Matuschofsky (born Vienna), son of Izaak de Vink, market gardener (tuinder, warmoezier), and Paulina Jacoba Wetselaar, brother of Jacques; lived Deutzstraat 11, Oegstgeest.
– Vink, Jacobus de (Jacques, 1904-), Leiden, married 1940 Elisabeth Franziska Merinskij (born Würzburg, Germany, 1906-), divorce 1976, son of Izaak de Vink, market gardener (tuinder, warmoezier), and Paulina Jacoba Wetselaar, brother of Izaäk; lived Krauwelsteeg, 11a, Leiden
Tonny de Vink; source: Allemaal familie.
– Vink, Geertruida Catharina de (Tonny, 1909-1974), Leiden, Amsterdam, not a sister nor a cousin of Jacques and Izaäk; married 1935 Wim Haagen, divorce 1942; daughter of David de Vink and Sophia Emma Geertruida Catharina Clasina Jacoba Johanna Kooreman; she remarried 1943 Antonius Johannes Swibertus (1908-1985), divorce 1947, remarried 1957 Gerardus Jan Cornelis Ras (1905-1973) (27).
– Zegerius, Sophia Martina (Fie, 1904-1977); Amsterdam; married 1923 Pieter Nicolaas Snijders, bookkeeper (boekhouder), divorce 1926; remarried 1938 Age van Agen; in the 1960’s and 1970’s translator of literature and history-books, daughter of Izaak Zegerius and Saartje Turfkruijer (28).
– Bom, Adrianus Jacobus (Arie, Rotterdam 1895-); Rotterdam, The Hague, worked with Gees en Stientje; member of the k.a.p.n.; published 1932-1933 De Radencommunist and from 1936 onwards Proletarische Beschouwingen; in the collection of Cajo Brendel, i.i.s.g. , map 39, one can find an autobiography of Arie Bom); with some others in The Hague he might have been a g.i.c.-member before 1932.
Cajo Brendel; source: libcom.org , Marcel van der Linden.
– Brendel, Cajo (1915-2007); The Hague, Amersfoort; journalist; contact of the g.i.c. from 1934 onwards (In his “Anton Pannekoek”, 1970, he stated that he “upheld close relations” with the g.i.c.); in 1937-1938 collaborator to Proletarische Beschouwingen, wrote for the anarchist paper De Vrije Socialist in 1938-1939; mobilised in the army in 1940, war-prisoner; from 1940 onwards journalist for a local newspaper; joined the Communistenbond “Spartacus” in 1952 after contacts with Theo Maassen, participant to Daad en Gedachte in 1965 (29).
– Eiting, Hendrikus (Henk, 1896-1969); Rotterdam; worker; member of “Spartacus”; in 1964 founding participant to Daad en Gedachte (30); he is not mentioned as former g.i.c. particpant and the g.i.c. did not have a section in Rotterdam; married 1921 Pietje Ouwens (1901-), son of Geert Eiting and Aaltje Besteheerde.
Lieuwe Hornstra; source: Sirkwy.frl .
– Hornstra, Lieuwe (1908-1990), studied in Leyde (Leiden), poet, medical doctor, psychoanalyst, Frisian culturalist, referred in the 1970’s to the g.i.c., but was not a participant; son of Johannes Hornstra en Haasje Maria van den Berg; also see: d.b.n.l.
– Pannekoek, Anton (1873-1960), contributed with texts, certainly was a “mentor” to, but not a participant of the g.i.c., see: An inventory of the writings of Antonie Pannekoek (1873-1960), Notes and letters by Antonie Pannekoek and Anton Pannekoek Newspaper-clippings/Krantenknipsels.
– Wiemer, Coenraad Wilhelmus (Coen, 1891-1967); Rotterdam; worker; member of “Spartacus”; in 1964 founding participant to Daad en Gedachte (31); he is not mentioned as former g.i.c. participant and the g.i.c. did not have a section in Rotterdam; married 1915 Maartje Hartman (±1890-), divorce 1938, son of Wilhelmus Wiemer, furniture maker (meubelmaker), and Maria Petronella Geertruida Holleman; they had a daughter Maria Petronella Geertruida Wiemer (±1916-).
The g.i.c. had some influence in Belgium; there were small groups in Antwerps, Brussels, Gendt, Mechlin, Seraing-Ougrée and Verviers, of which very little is known; in Dutch they published “Bulletyn/Bulletijn”.
They formed the Bond der Internationaal-Kommunisten van België (also Bond der Internationale Kommunisten), which also published in French as the Ligue des Communistes Internationalistes (32).
Four institutions in Belgium conserve publicly available collections:
– Hennaut, Adhémar (1899-1977); Elsene/Ixelles (suburb of Brussels); bilingual house painter, worked as ship-painter in Rotterdam, until 1928 member of the p.c.b.; later an intermediary between the German-Dutch and the Italian Left, particularly since 1936, translated from Dutch towards French, part of his papers is conserved in the u.l.b.
1. Main author of the Roodboek was Maurits Dekker, others participating in the edition: Lo Lopes Cardozo and Greet van Amstel; of the (g.i.c.): Age van Agen and Bernard Verduin, see: Roodboek ; also see: Marinus van der Lubbe en de Rijksdagbrand . The divergencies in relation to Marinus van der Lubbe certainly enforced the centrifugal tendencies within the g.i.c.; while all agreed to defend his person against nazi and stalinist slander, some also defended his deed.
2. For the composition of his househould in the 1930’s, see: Gezinskaarten Amsterdam ; for Age van Agen en Fie Zegerius during the war, see: BremerMisjpoge ; the parents of the saved child (Rudy Bremer) were Elias Bremer and Veronica Zegerius; the deportation of the children took place 5 March 1943, see: Opnieuw tranen! Bij een kleine vondst uit het Nederlandsch Israëlitisch Jongensweeshuis Megadlé Jethomin in Amsterdam. – In: Misjpoge , Jrg. 13 (2000), nr. 1. – p. 12-15.
5. Also see: Correspondence with G.B. van Albada, 1944-1973 , including: Statement on political beliefs of G.B. van Albada. – In: The Letters and Papers of Jan Hendrik Oort as archived in het University Library, Leiden / J.K. Katgert-Merkelijn. – Dordrecht : Springer Science+Business Media, 1997. – Map 233, p. 107; also see: Persoonskaarten Amsterdam, 1939-1994.
9. Lea Appel, also author of the radio-plays De trooster en de witte bloem (1979, published as book: Amstelveen : Amphora, 1980) and: Het brood der doden: Geschiedenis en ondergang van een joods meisjes-weeshuis, radio-play 28 januari 1982 (published as book: Baarn : Bosch & Keuning, cop. 1982 – 112 p.)
10. On the Bianchetti-family some information in: Vele Woningen, maar nergens een thuis / Dennis Bos; the members were related to the Korper’s and Maassen’s by marriages. Bernardo Antonio Bianchetti, born Villadossole (Italië), 15 June 1878, died Amsterdam, 16 January 1910, married Amsterdam, B.S., 20 juli 1906 Antonia Johanna Maassen, born Amsterdam, 6 August 1878, died Amsterdam, 8 januari 1968.
15. Probably Wilhelmus Arnoldus Matthias Hermanus Holtwijk, born Delft, 1904, moved to Amsterdam from The Hague, 1907; see: Gezinskaart Amsterdam ; this Willem Holtwijk left diaries, see: Stadsarchief Amsterdam .
18. Theo Maassen, see: Daad en Gedachte, nr. 6, June 1974, p. 15-17, followed by comments by Jaap Meulenkamp; and: Vele woningen, maar nergens een huis / Dennis Bos. – Amsterdam : Het spinhuis, 1996. – p. 53-55.
21. Ben Sijes, see: Wikipedia (nl) ; Jaarboek van de Maatschappij der Nederlandse Letterkunde , 1987.
29. Cajo Brendel, see a.o.: Radencommunisme en zelfstandige strijd / Cajo Brendel (interview). – Amsterdam : Rode Emma, 1998. – p. 20-27; also see: Cajo Brendel 1915-2007 / Henny Buiting; and: Cajo Brendel (1915-2007) / Marcel van der Linden, and also: Cajo Brendel (1915-2007) / Internationale Kommunistische Stroming [Vico], finally: Cajo Brendel zum Abschied / von Piet Rademakers, Hengelo (Nl.), with photo’s. In his book on Anton Pannekoek, Cajo Brendel stated that in the 1930’s he held “close relations” with the g.i.c.; he joined the group in The Hague in 1934, when it was not, or not any longer, a local section of the g.i.c.
32. Some information in: Het Belgisch trotskisme ; de geschiedenis van een groep oppositionele kommunisten 1925-1940 / Nadya De Beule ; Inleiding door Herman Balthazar. – Gent : Jan Dhondt Stichting ; Masereelfonds, 1980; hoofdstuk: De Ligue des Communistes Internationalistes, p, 232-234; also see: Un siècle de Gauche communiste «italienne» (1915-2015) / Philippe Bourrinet.
Compiled by Vico, 12 October 2015, latest additions 27 July 2017