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The “Aim” first published in 1930; signed by “Groups of Cooperating Council Communists”, also including the l.a.o.
Groep(en) van Internationale Communisten (G.I.C., 1928-1944)
It did not adopt a platform or statutes, just a short “Aim” (“Doelstelling”, since 1930). It started publishing regularly in 1928 in both Dutch and German, while from 1934 onwards some English translations were published in the International Council Correspondence (translated from German), while also publications in Esperanto were published, and efforts were made towards French. By 1930 there were some twenty participants, mostly former k.a.p.n.-members and most of the Amsterdam’ former k.a.j.-members (the youth organisation of the k.a.p.n.), growing to some fourty, the new being mostly younger with little political background; for them the g.i.c. was foremost a solid “school” in critical and scientific thinking. With Amsterdam as its centre, there were also small “sections” – or rather contacts or correspondents – in The Hague (’s-Gravenhage, Den Haag), Leyde (Leiden), Enschede and Groningen, which tended to have dynamics of their own and reproaching the Amsterdam’ g.i.c. to be too “theoretical”; thus “groups” became “group” as early as February 1934. A highly divisive question was the setting on fire of the German Reichstag in 1933 by Marinus van der Lubbe. Within Amsterdam, the same tendency appeared in 1934 with the publication of Discussie, later Proletenstemmen and also Actie!, which remained however linked to the g.i.c.
In the beginning, the g.i.c. defined itself as “international”, as opposed to stalinist “national” communists (with proletarian internationalism as key question); thus, very subtle, the “De Kommunistische Arbeider” (The Communist Worker) was the “Orgaan van de Kommunistische Arbeiders Partij in Nederland” and not “of” Nederland.
Gradually the focus went to “council” communism (the expression appeared probably for the first time in 1930, see the “Aim” above) as opposed to “party” (or “state”) communism (thus rather stressing the form of struggle, leading to the disdaining brandmark “councilism”). This goes most probably back to Otto Rühle’s Die Revolution ist keine Parteisache (1920), a current of which we find little trace in the Netherlands until the 1930s.
Although publication, by lack of means and preparation, was discontinued with the German occupation of the Netherlands in May 1940, the personal ties persisted; just like participation in “illegal” activities; often “underground” and without any income.
Faced with the inevitability of a new world war (which the g.i.c. clearly pronounced as early as 1930, and with more insistence in 1932), there was some, yet fundamental, accordance with a part of the very “partyist” m.l.l.-front: in 1941 support for the Soviet-Union was given up by several of the latter (including Henk Sneevliet and Ab Menist) which led to the need for retrospective clarification and the “late discovery of council communism” (Wim Bot) opposed to those who joined the “trotskyists” of the “IVth International” of Ernest Mandel, who considered that the Allied camp had become a “lesser evil” to be supported against Nazism, that is: after the assasination in 1940 of Leon Trotsky, who himself had remained an internationalist.
The peculiar situation evolved in which what remained of the internationalist “partyists” of the m.l.l.-front started to work together with the “council communists” of the former g.i.c., who were invited to contribute to the discussion within the Communistenbond “Spartacus”; many of the paticipants of the g.i.c. gradually joined the Bond by the end of 1944 and the beginning of 1945, thus before the end of the war.
Foreseeable organisational tensions and disagreements made most former g.i.c. participants to leave “Spartacus” in 1947, some twenty of them still active; an effort to produce a new magazine Radencommunisme soon failed; the participants were dispersed and most gave up political activities by lack of perspectives. Of the former g.i.c. paticipants only Jan and Lea Appel (who soon after had to give up political activities), Theo Maassen and Theo van de Heuvel remained within “Spartacus”, a circumstance which left the political heritage of the g.i.c. in the hands of “Spartacus”, without any capacity to elaborate it much further or to integrate it into a very different social context.
The g.i.c. presented its publications as the products of common discussion; as a matter of principles, articles were published without a signature (and it was also safer!). Anton Pannekoek however marked the texts he had written in his copy of the publication, and of several other texts the writers can be identified. Still, most participant names remained obscure, particularly when they did not contribute much by writing, and an effort has been made to identify them so that those who assured the more “material” organisational tasks will not remain anonymous.
The following list of fourty participants (probably quite complete) was composed of names found in the g.i.c.-press, literature on the g.i.c., from “Daad en Gedachte”, and most of all completed with a list of names provided by Jan and Lea Appel in ±1983, and then further completed from other sources (giving no new names), like personal communications of family members; information from civil records (
A provisional conclusion might be that the group certainly was not composed of highly educated “intellectuals”; in fact there were few; it was rather a mixture of formally uneducated but well self-instructed (“auto-didactic”) workers with few “academics”, with in between some over-representation of “instructed” people with a working class background.
More information, like personal memories, and references to printed and other sources, and of course also pictures, it is all highly appreciated.
nl | Witness Account by Louis Korper (1919-1989) on the k.a.p.n. (the Korper’s), g.i.c., Ben Sijes, Jan Appel, Peter Utzelmann, Fritz Kief and many others.
“Men moet de g.i.c. niet zien als een partij, met een voorzitter en een penningmeester etc. want die bestonden niet. Men stond op het standpunt van de zelfwerkzaamheid der arbeiders en dat voerde men ook door binnen het eigen groepje.
Source: i.i.s.g. , Amsterdam; Kleine Nederlandse Archieven, personen, nr 116: typoscript van Louis Korper naar aanleiding van Richter Roegholt’s Ben Sijes — een biografie (Den Haag 1988).
— Agen, Age van (1896-1973); Amsterdam, merchant, worker; member of the k.a.p.n., agitator among the unemployed, most of all inspirator of the seperate Proletenstemmen; co-author/editor of the Roodboek on Marinus van der Lubbe (1); he disposed of a mimeograph; son of Jan van Agen, merchant, and Annigje Steenbergen; married 1920 in Lonneker (Overijssel) Luutske Nijdam, assistent druggist (apothekersassistente); divorce Enschede 1936, they had a daughter Ann van Agen (1923-); remarries 1938 Fie Zegerius; adopting Rudy Bremer in 1943 (2), thus saving his life; since May 1938 he lived Holendrechtstraat 26-2.
— Albada, Gale Bruno van (Bruun, 1912-1972); son of Bruno Lieuwes van Albada, medical army docter, and lady (jonkvrouw) Johanna Antonia van Rappard; astronomer, pupil of Anton Pannekoek in Amsterdam, marries 1938 Lea Berreklouw, divorce 1949, in 1950 remarries Elsa van Dien (1914-2007) (3), likewise astronomer and pupil of Anton Pannekoek; they moved to Indonesia 1949-1958 were he became director of the Bosscha Observatory; brother of Piet (4); translated, with Elsa van Dien, Lenin as Philosopher into Dutch, published 1974 (5).
Bruun van Albada, ca. 1955; source: http://tri.astraatmadja.org .
— Albada, Piet van (1905-1997); son of Bruno Lieuwes van Albada, medical army docter, and lady (jonkvrouw) Johanna Antonia van Rappard; studied Leiden mathematics, physics and astronomy, pupil of the marxist mathematician Dirk Struik; was also in contact with the l.a.o. and Marinus van der Lubbe; married Lucia Joustra in 1933 and moved to Groningen, were he left the g.i.c. after divergencies; 1939-1951 teacher of mathematics in Rotterdam, 1951-1958 professor of mathematics at the University of Padjajaran (Bandung, Indonesia), 1958-1970 head scientific civil servant at Eindhoven, 1964-1966 and after being pensioned professor at the University of Nigeria in Nsukka (6); later member of the Comité Van der Lubbe; mentioned on a police-list of left-extremists in 1939; brother of Bruun van Albada (7).
Piet van Albada, ca. 1930; source: Wiskrant
— Appel, Johannes Joachim Wilhelm (Jan, 1890-1985, ps. Max Hempel, Jan Arndt, Jan Vos, Jan de Bruin); Amsterdam; qualified shipbuilder; founding participant of the g.i.c., since 1947 partner of Lea Berreklouw, also see: Jan Appel; main author of the Grondbeginselen van de communistische productie en distributie; also see: Witness Account by Louis Korper.
Jan Appel, 1978; source: a.a.a.p.
— Beer, Herman de (1871-1936); Amsterdam; travelling salesman (handelsreiziger), real estate agent (makelaar), member of the k.a.p.n., main author of De beweging van het kapitalistisch bedrijfsleven, 1932; son of Abraham Mozes de Beer, shopkeeper (winkelier) and Judik Heertjes; marries 1896 Sara de Vries (1868-murdered Auschwitz 1943), one son and two daughters: Benjamin (1897-), Lea (1899-murdered Auschwitz 1943) and Judith (1902-) (8).
— Berreklouw, Lea (1914-1997); speech therapist (logopediste), writer, Amsterdam, participant since 1936, marries 1938 Bruun van Albada, divorce 1949; since 1947 partner of Jan Appel, marries him 1956, then moving to Maastricht (9); daughter of Hartog Berreklouw (1876-murdered Sobibor, 1943) and Christina Tas (1880-murdered Sobibor, 1943); she had a son Robert van Albada (Rob, 1939-).
Lea Berreklouw, 1978; source: a.a.a.p.
— Bianchetti, Albert Johan (Broer, 1907-1993); Amsterdam; dental technician (tandtechnicus); marries Tini Luttekes (1929-2010); moved to Vlieland; son of Bernardo Antonio Bianchetti and Antonia Johanna Maassen; Theo Maassen was his uncle (10); also see: Witness Account by Louis Korper.
— Bianchetti, Bernardo Antonio (Ben, Bennie, 1906-ca. 1980); born Amsterdam; turner, lathe operator (machinebankwerker); member of the Kommunistische Arbeidersjeugd; marries Amsterdam, 1929 Sylvia Castleton, born New York, 19 jaar old, daughter of Samuel M. Castleton, lawyer, and Bess Carlin; officialy divorced 1936; she had previously been married to Adriaan Maximiliaan van der Horst; he remarries Amsterdam, 1936 Ans Goedee; they had two children: Rudi and Carla; they lived Churchilllaan; he was a son of Bernardo Antonio Bianchetti and Antonia Johanna Maassen; Theo Maassen was his uncle (10); he lived a.o. Burgemeester Tellegenstraat 60; in 1932 he is mentioned in a military register, and in 1942 in a police report; he is mentioned in a register of employed (tewerkgestelden); he leaves Amsterdam in 1945 for Hoogeveen, Drenthe; also see: Witness Account by Louis Korper.
— Canne Meijer, Hendrik (Henk, 1890-1962); Amsterdam; first benchman travelling through Europe, since 1914 teacher, member of the s.d.a.p., s.d.p., k.a.p.n. (left in 1924); founding participant of the g.i.c., see Henk Canne Meijer.
Henk Canne Meijer, 1949, with Marco in his arms; source: a.a.a.p., Clara Geoffroy.
— Coerman, Piet (1890-1962); teacher, Bussum, member of s.d.a.p., s.d.p., k.a.p.n., founding participant of the g.i.c.; close friend of Herman Gorter.
Elly van Gelder; source: Allemaal familie .
— Goedee, Anna Christina (Ans, Druten, 1908-); Amsterdam; marries 1936 Ben Bianchetti; daughter of Bastiaan Goedee, supervisor (opzichter), en Anna Christina Bakhuijs; also see: Witness Account by Louis Korper.
— Gotjé, Henri (Han, Mülheim, 1885-1962), Amsterdam; fire maker (vuurstoker), driver (chauffeur), marries 1907 Maria Jacoba Zegerius (1889-1976, a sister of Fie Zegerius), divorce 1927; remarries 1930 Trijntje Bos; son of Ludovicus Josephus Gotjé and Henrietta Christina Everdina Burger; children: Henri Christiaan Evert (1908-), Maria Jacoba (1909-), Louis Hendricus (1910-), Wilhelmina Anthonia (1913-) and Maria Jacoba (1917-) (12).
— Haagen, Willem Gerardus (Wim, 1910-Langenstein, Konzentrationsanlager Zwieberge, 1945), participant since 1935, painter (artist), furniture maker (meubelmaker), brother of Leo Haagen, marries Tonny de Vink in 1935, divorce 1942; they had a son Roland (1937-); since 1941 living with Elly van Gelder, son of Jan Willem Haagen, Tailor (kleermaker) and Magdalena Geertruida van Vught (Lena).
Wim Haagen; source: Allemaal familie .
Wim Haagen, Elly van Gelder en Leo Haagen; source: Allemaal familie .
— Haagen, Leo Eugenius (Leo, 1911-1988), initially anarchist, participant since 1935, wrote for Proletenstemmen; kapper, begrafenisondernemer, handelsreiziger in manufacturen, in 1948 hairdresser (kapper, then living Weteringstraat 44-II); brother of Wim Haagen, marries 1933 Margaretha de Vink (Greetje), a sister of Tonny de Vink, divorce 1936, they had two children, Antje and Bob; he remarries 1954 Anna Hermina van Wereld (1926-2005), one child; son of Jan Willem Haagen, tailor (kleermaker) and Magdalena Geertruida van Vught (Lena); he had a sister Dorothea Gerarda Haagen (Door, 1912-2006), who marries 1934 David de Vink (Daaf, 1912-1994), a brother of Tonny de Vink (these emigrated to Australia).
Leo Haagen en An van Wereld; source: Allemaal familie .
— Hellingman, Maria Engelina (Mien) (1895-1954), speech therapist (spraaklerares) at a music-school, Amsterdam, daughter of Johannes Egbertus Hellingman, agent insurances (verzekeringsagent), and Johanna Maria Weltman; marries 1923 the writer Maurits Dekker (1896-1962); their two children from a free mariage were then recognised; friends with Henk Canne Meijer and his wive Gé; also see: Mien Hellingman; Verzet tot het uiterste / Bart de Cort. – In: Contactblad Stichting 1940-1945, zomer 2019.
Maurits Dekker en Mien Hellingman, ca. 1950; foto Carel Blazer/archief erven M.E. Dekker-Hellingman
— Heuvel, Theodorus Franciscus van den (Theo, 1891-1976); Amsterdam, benchman (bankwerker); later Spartacus, in 1964 founding participant of Daad en Gedachte (13), son of Maria Wilhelmina van den Heuvel; marries Mühlheim, 1913 Judith Gerada Hubertina Giesbertz (Kessel, 1891-1981), daughter of Renier Giesbertz en Gertrudis Kuijpers; moves from Mühlheim to Amsterdam in 1916; two children born in Mühlheim, one in Amsterdam.
— Jordens, Gerrit David (1877-1957); Zwolle, mechanical engineer (werktuigbouwkundig ingenieur), president of the local section of the k.a.p.n.; one of the the first g.i.c.-participants; although seriously ill since 1930, he remained in contact; son of Daniel Jacob Rudolph Jordens, bookkeeper, and Willemina Henriette Elisabeth Molenkamp; marries 1903 Anna Geertruida de Bruijn (1881-1946); children: Erik (born and died 1904), Wilhelmina Henriette Elizabeth (1906-1921), Erik (1908-, marries Nine Agter), Helena Henriette Gerdina (1910-) (15).
Gerrit Jordens, source: Igor Cornelissen.
— Joustra, Lucia (1903-1985); studied Leiden, medical doctor, marries 1933 Piet van Albada; left the g.i.c. with her husband in 1936 after divergencies; mentioned on a police-list of left-extremists in 1939; after the Second World War mentioned as member of the editorial office of Spartacus, as Lucie Albada.
— Korper, Louis (Loet, 1919-1989); Amsterdam; earlier member of the Kommunistische Arbeidersjeugd; son of Manus Korper and Tonie Maassen; marries 1953 Ali A. Eilander, a sister of Ad Eilander, who was married to Rietje Bianchetti; see: Witness Account by Louis Korper
— Krans, Jan Jans (1907-); Amsterdam; postal address Werkgroepen van Raden-Kommunisten (=Proletenstemmen), then lived Ruysdaelkade, 93-III; carpenter (timmerman); son of Willem Gerrit Krans, postal office employee (kantoorknecht posterijen), en Elisabeth Westerveld; marries 1930 Wilhelmina Altelaar (1908-); they had a son Willem Gerrit (1933-) (16).
— Leereveld, Han; brother of Marcel Leereveld.
— Leereveld, Marcel (1917-); Amsterdam, Blaricum, language teacher French, German, Indonesian and Esperanto, translator for Klasbatalo since 1937, emigrated to Indonesia after 1947 and then to Melbourne, Australia in 1952, translated in 1978 Pannekoek’s Anthropogeneses towards Esperanto (17); marries Alida (1922-2014), two children; son of Johannes Gerardus Kool, painter (kunstschilder), and Johanna Elisabeth Leereveld, brother of Han Leereveld.
Marcel Leereveld, 2015; source: Edukado.net .
— Maassen, Theodorus Johannes (Theo, ps. Roossen, 1891-1974); Amsterdam; sales representative, teacher; excluded from the s.d.a.p., the c.p.h., the k.a.p.n., the g.i.c. and later from “Spartacus”, he was not however a founding participant of the g.i.c.; during the Second World War confined in Kamp Amersfoort, in 1944 he first collaborated with “Spartacus”, then became a member; in 1964 he was a founding participant of Daad en Gedachte; its “master and exemple”; son of Albert Arnold Maassen, carpenter (timmerman), and Anthonia Johanna van den Heuvel, brother of Catho and Toni Maassen, marries 1912 Hilda Emma Anna Cornelia van der Haas, divorce 1918, remarries 1919 Pauline Louise Phillipeau; their daughter Sonja Maassen (1921-2008) became a popular singer (18).
— Meijer, Johan Ernst, (Jan, 1893-); Amsterdam; car driver (karrijder); mentioned in 1937-1939 as postal address for the p.i.c., living Chasséstraat 11-III, Amsterdam-West, in 1939, according to the police, a “prominent anarchist”; marries 1915 Maria Hendrika van Dam, divorce 1945; children: Johan Ernst (1916-), Maria Hendrika (1918-), Nicolaas (1920-), Hendrik Johan (1926-) Anna Maria Elisabeth (1930-) and Johanna Catharine (1933-); son of Nicolaas Meijer, boat worker (bootwerker), and Anna Maria Marree (19).
— Nottrot, Evert Hendrik (Evert, Kampen, 1897-1968); Amsterdam; son of Johannes Lambertus Nottrot, cigar maker, and Zwaantje Kuiper; marries 1923 Margaretha Wilhelmina Harke (1897-1968); four children: Johannes Lambertus (1924-), Evert Hendrik Cornelis (1925-), Anton Cornelis (1931-) and Margaretha Wilhelmina (1933-) (20)
— Reinach, Hans Josef, known as Small or German (Kleine of Duitse) Hans; lawyer, restaurantcook; born Kassel (Germany), 1906, came in 1934 via Paris to Amsterdam; lived 1935 Rokin, nr. 34, in 1941 without address, in 1942 Lekstraat 160 1-hoog); during the occupation he was part of the resistance group around Rinus Pelgrom; murdered Auschwitz, 1944 (21); son of ? and Agnes Reinach-Löwenherz (1876-1919); marries Paris, 1934 Charlotte Wallach, born Wormditt (Germany, now Orneta in Polen), 1905, murdered Auschwitz, 1943; daughter Marianne Agnes Edith Reinach, born 1936, murdered Auschwitz, 1943.
— Sijes, Ben Aäron (1908-1981); Amsterdam; welder (lasser), after 1945 historian, participant of the g.i.c. since 1934 (22); son of Aäron Sijes (1880-mudered Auschwitz, 1942), cigarmaker, and Judith Pais (1880-murdered Sobibor, 1943) (23); marries 1938 Greetje van der Hulst (±1910-±1977); they adopted Isaäk Meents (1935-) in 1945, only child of Ben Sijes’ sister Rebecca Sijes and Maurits Meents, both murdered in Sobibor, 1943; own children: Ruben (1948-) and Martin (1950-).
Ben Sijes, 1965; source: Wikipedia (nl).
— Smole, Leopold (Leo, 1915-); Amsterdam (24); son of Leopold Smole (1888-) and Cornelia Wessening; born Amsterdam he obtained the Dutch nationality 10 augustus 1951, then he was merchant (koopman) (Staatsblad, nr. 352).
— Spierenburg, Wim (Willem, 1914-1985); Amsterdam, in 1934 office employee (kantoorbediende) in 1943 doorkeeper (portier), worked after the Second World War as correspondent and stenographer for the social-democrat Arbeiderspers, later as corrector at Het Vrije Volk; initially member of the social-democrat “Arbeiders Jeugd Centrale” and studied h.b.s. (higher secondary school); member of the o.s.p. 1932-1935, drafted in the Dutch army in 1934-1935; in 1937-1938 he fought on the Aragon-Front during the Spanisch Civil-war; then participant of the g.i.c.; in 1945 member of Spartacus; he spoke and wrote at least Esperanto, Russian, French and Spanish; he was the only child of the bookseller Willem Spierenburg and Geertruida Schuilenburg and marries 1940 Hendrika Johanna van Beek; they had four children (25).
Willem Spierenburg; source: Maarten Horn, private communication.
— Stokvis, Hendrik (Henk, ps. H. Pasman, 1874-), Amsterdam, furniture maker (meubelmaker), son of Eduard Gerardus Stokvis, cupper turner (koperdraaier), and Antje Böckmann; marries Amsterdam, B.S., 1903 Anna Pasman (1878-1957), daughter of Jan Pasman, landman, and Aaltje Helmig; they had a son Eduard Gerardus (1903/4-) and a daughter Alida (1906-); in 1948 postal address for Radencommunisme, then living Van Hogendorpstraat 132-I, Amsterdam (26).
— Verduin, Abraham (1902-murdered Auschwitz, 1945), Amsterdam, manufacturer of hats, born Borgerhout (Belgium), secretary youth group k.a.p.n., on police lists of the c.i.d., 1924 and 1930; marries 1923 Anna Vijevano (1900-1997), boekhoudster; children: Wanda (1925-murdered Auschwitz, 1944), Ernst (1927-); son van Isaac Verduin, diamond cutter, and Rachel Stijsel (both murdered in Auschwitz); brother of Bernard Verduin (27).
Abraham Verduin, ±1940, source: joodsmonument.nl (more photo’s there).
— Verduin, Bernard (Ben) (1900-1972), Amsterdam, since 1925 he ran a company dealing with neon-lights (the first in the Netherlands, 35 years later he wrote Flitslicht op New York on his business); member of the k.a.p.n., co-author of the Roodboek on Marinus van der Lubbe; marries Betje Hillesum (1901-1924); she wrote a diary which was continued after her death by Bernard Verduin; after 1931 he remarries Nelly Knikker (1890-1971); two children: Bernard (Bob, 1921, glassblower, murdered Buchenwald, 1945), Frits (1923, advertising painter, in hiding with Rinus Pelgrom, murdered Auschwitz, 1944); son of Isaac Verduin, diamond cutter (diamantslijper) and Rachel Bernadina Stijsel (both murdered in Auschwitz); brother of Abraham Verduin (28). The diary was published as: Het begon op 10 mei… / Bernard Verduin. – Amsterdam : Boekenbedrijf Arena, 1946; book review in: De Waarheid by Gerrit Kouwenaar; he deals with it as if it were a novel.
Bernard Verduin, ±1930, ±1965; source: Joods Cultureel Kwartier .
— Vink, Izaäk de (ps. Koos, 1902-1964); Leiden, married 1939 Maria Matuschofsky (born Vienna), son of Izaak de Vink, market gardener (tuinder, warmoezier), and Paulina Jacoba Wetselaar, brother of Jacques; lived Deutzstraat 11, Oegstgeest.
— Vink, Jacobus de (Jacques, 1904-), Leiden, marries 1940 Elisabeth Franziska Merinskij (born Würzburg, Germany, 1906-), divorce 1976, son of Izaak de Vink, market gardener (tuinder, warmoezier), and Paulina Jacoba Wetselaar, brother of Izaäk; lived Krauwelsteeg, 11a, Leiden
— Vink, Geertruida Catharina de (Tonny, 1909-1974), Leiden, Amsterdam, not a sister nor a cousin of Jacques and Izaäk; marries 1935 Wim Haagen, divorce 1942; daughter of David de Vink and Sophia Emma Geertruida Catharina Clasina Jacoba Johanna Kooreman; she remarries 1943 Antonius Johannes Swibertus (1908-1985), divorce 1947, remarries 1957 Gerardus Jan Cornelis Ras (1905-1973) (29).
Tonny de Vink; source: Allemaal familie.
— Zegerius, Sophia Martina (Fie, 1904-1977); Amsterdam; daughter of Izaak Zegerius (Utrecht, 1856-Castricum, Provinciaal Ziekenhuis “Duin en Bosch”, 1921) and Saartje Turfkruijer (1858-1940); marries 1923 Pieter Nicolaas Snijders, bookkeeper (boekhouder), divorce 1926; remarries 1938 Age van Agen; in the 1960’s and 1970’s translator of literature and history-books (30).
— Berg, Gerard Frederik van den (Gerard, The Hague, 1909-1997); carpenter (timmerman), Amsterdam; in 1937 mentioned by the police as g.i.c.-member; agitator and fierced debater; later joined “Spartacus” until 1947; since implied in Amsterdam’ activism, titoism, mauism, pirate-radio, squaters-movement, theater (Aktie Tomaat ); son of Jan Pieter van den Berg and Jansje Catharina Wilhelmina Breedijk, marries 1936 Angenieta Wilhelmina Danko (1903-; she left Amsterdam May 1943); he then lived with Hendrika Schulte (1925-; ready-to-wear needlewoman (conf[ectie]. naaister)); he had a son Gerard van den Berg (1936-). He was also known for transporting young women on the back of his bicycle to his home.
Gerard van den Berg; source: Gerard van den Berg (1909-1997) / Tjebbe van Tijen.
— Bom, Adrianus Jacobus (Arie, Rotterdam 1895-); Rotterdam, The Hague, worked with Gees en Stientje; member of the k.a.p.n.; published 1933 De Radencommunist and from 1936 onwards Proletarische Beschouwingen; in the collection of Cajo Brendel, i.i.s.g. , map 39, one can find an “autobiography” of Arie Bom).
— Brendel, Carel Johan (Cajo, 1915-2007; at birth Hinlopen, he changed his name in 1943); The Hague, Amersfoort; journalist; contact of the g.i.c. from 1934 onwards (In his “Anton Pannekoek”, 1970, he stated that he “upheld close relations” with the g.i.c.); in 1937-1938 collaborator to Proletarische Beschouwingen, wrote for the anarchist paper De Vrije Socialist in 1938-1939; mobilised in the army in 1939, war-prisoner; from 1940 onwards journalist for a local newspaper; joined the Communistenbond “Spartacus” in 1952 after contacts with Theo Maassen, participant to Daad en Gedachte in 1965; son of Johan Brendel (1880-) and Cornelia Carolina Hinlopen (1876-), his parents marry 1928 and divorce 1943; Cajo marries 1943 Riek van der Meulen; four children (31).
— Eiting, Hendrikus (Henk, 1896-1969); Rotterdam; worker; member of “Spartacus”; in 1964 founding participant to Daad en Gedachte (32); he is not mentioned as former g.i.c. particpant and the g.i.c. did not have a section in Rotterdam; marries 1921 Pietje Ouwens (1901-), son of Geert Eiting and Aaltje Besteheerde.
— Hobijn, Johannes Lambertus (Jan, 1904-); Amsterdam, worker, driver; in 1934 member of the c.p.o. (Communistische Partij Oppositie), consisting of members and excluded members of the c.p.h.; he was in charge of the distribution of pamphlets; afterwards the “driving force” behind manifestos and leaflets 1935-1936 (Linksche arbeidersorganisaties , 1935, 1937, 1939) which he typed and mimeographed himself (Collectie Henk Canne Meijer , map 248); notably Discussie; the g.i.c. made use of his mimeograph; in 1936 he was called a “fascist” in De Tribune, in 1939 according to the police “prominent anarchist”; he also donated materials to the i.i.s.g. in 1939; son of Wilhelm Hobijn (1881-), workman, and Marianne Pauel (1883-1929); marries 1929 Hendrika Maria Catharina Metz (1908-); they had a son Johan (1930-) (33).
Jan Hobijn, De Tribune, 6 november 1934; source: Delpher .
Jan Hobijn, De Waarheid, 23 november 1946; source: Delpher .
— Hornstra, Lieuwe (1908-1990, in 1973 he changed his first name from Leo to Lieuwe), studied in Leyden (Leiden), poet, medical doctor, psychoanalyst, Frisian culturalist, referred in the 1970’s to the g.i.c., but had not been a participant, he might however have been in contact with the Linksche Arbeiders-Oppositie (l.a.o.); son of Johannes Hornstra en Haasje Maria van den Berg; also see: d.b.n.l. .
Lieuwe Hornstra; source: Sirkwy.frl .
— Moerman, Anton Jacob, (1905-); Amsterdam; metal worker (metaalarbeider), benchman (bankwerker); in 1934 member of the c.p.o., then contact address of Discussie; living Bertelmanplein, 30-II; then Jacob van Lennepkade, 104 hs.; son of Johannes Petrus Moerman, warehouseman (magazijnbediende) and Johanna Horst; married 1932 Antje Woudenberg (1909-).
— Otto, Petrus, (1896-1949); Amsterdam; waiter (kellner), dispatching helper (expeditie-knecht); in 1934 member of the c.p.o., then co-editor of Discussie; son of Frederik Otto and Maria Jacoba Spits; marries 1916 Alberdina Holsbergen (1892-); children: Geertruida Hendrika (1917-), Maria Frederika (1918-), Petrus Albertus (1919-) and Frederik (1921-).
— Pannekoek, Anton (1873-1960), contributed with texts, certainly was a “mentor” to, but not a participant of the g.i.c., although regular meetings were held at his house; see: An inventory of the writings of Antonie Pannekoek (1873-1960), Notes and letters by Antonie Pannekoek and Anton Pannekoek Newspaper-clippings/Krantenknipsels.
— Wiemer, Coenraad Wilhelmus (Coen, 1891-1967); Rotterdam; worker; member of “Spartacus”; in 1964 founding participant to Daad en Gedachte (34); he is not mentioned as former g.i.c. participant and the g.i.c. did not have a section in Rotterdam; son of Wilhelmus Wiemer, furniture maker (meubelmaker), and Maria Petronella Geertruida Holleman; marries 1915 Maartje Hartman (±1890-), divorce 1938; they had a daughter Maria Petronella Geertruida Wiemer (±1916-).
The g.i.c. had some influence in Belgium; there were small groups in Antwerps, Brussels, Gendt, Mechlin, Seraing-Ougrée and Verviers, of which very little is known; in Dutch they published “Bulletyn/Bulletijn”.
They formed the Bond der Internationaal-Kommunisten van België (also Bond der Internationale Kommunisten), and also “Liga”; which also published in French as the Ligue des Communistes Internationalistes (35).
Eight institutions in Belgium may conserve publicly available collections of interest:
— Hennaut, Adhémar (1899-1977); Elsene/Ixelles (suburb of Brussels); bilingual house painter, worked several years as ship-painter in Rotterdam, until 1928 member of the p.c.b.; later an intermediary between the German-Dutch and the Italian Left, particularly since 1936, translated from Dutch towards French, part of his papers was conserved in the u.l.b., transferred to CArCoB (search on “hennaut”); “Dossiers”, 2351, 1 piège, and Amsab-i.s.g.
Adhémar Hennaut, ca. 1950; source: “Left Wing” Communism — an infantile disorder ; a further source is not given.
Publications mentioned/reproduced in Discussie!.
1. Main author of the “Roodboek” was Maurits Dekker, others participating in the edition: Lo Lopes Cardozo and Greet van Amstel; Eduard Sirach (l.a.o.), of the (g.i.c.): Age van Agen and Bernard Verduin, see: “Roodboek” ; also see: Marinus van der Lubbe en de
2. Age van Agen: For the composition of his househould, see: Gezinskaarten , Amsterdam, 1893-1939; for Age van Agen en Fie Zegerius during the war, see: BremerMisjpoge ; the parents of the saved child (Rudy Bremer) were Elias Bremer and Veronica Zegerius; the deportation of the children took place 5 March 1943, see: Opnieuw tranen! Bij een kleine vondst uit het Nederlandsch Israëlitisch Jongensweeshuis Megadlé Jethomin in Amsterdam. – In: Misjpoge , Jrg. 13 (2000), nr. 1. – p. 12-15.
3. Elsa van Dien (1914-2007), see: Joods Monument Zaanstreek (with photo’s of her, her husband and their two sons); after the Second World War she was member of the Spartacusbond.
4. On the Van Albada-family, also see: Oud Hoorn ; Kwartaalblad , Jg. 35 (2013), 2, p. 90-93.
5. Bruun van Albada: also see: Correspondence with G.B. van Albada, 1944-1973 , including: Statement on political beliefs of G.B. van Albada. – In: The Letters and Papers of Jan Hendrik Oort as archived in het University Library, Leiden / J.K. Katgert-Merkelijn. – Dordrecht : Springer Science+Business Media, 1997. – Map 233, p. 107; also see: Persoonskaarten Amsterdam , 1939-1994.
6. Piet van Albada, see: Het kistje van Albada / Ed de Moor. – In: Nieuwe Wiskrant, Jrg. 21 (2001), nr. 2 (december). – p. 32-43, with photo.
7. Memories of Piet van Albada of his youth in Amsterdam in 1912-1913: Geheugen van Oost-Amsterdam .
8. Herman de Beer: for his extended househould, see: Gezinskaarten , Amsterdam, 1893-1939.
9. Lea Appel, also author of the radio-plays: De trooster en de witte bloem (1979, published as book: Amstelveen : Amphora, 1980) and: Het brood der doden: Geschiedenis en ondergang van een joods meisjes-weeshuis, radio-play 28 januari 1982 (published as book: Baarn : Bosch & Keuning, cop. 1982 – 112 p.)
10. On the Bianchetti-family some information in: Vele Woningen, maar nergens een thuis / Dennis Bos; the members were related to the Korper’s and Maassen’s by marriages. Bernardo Antonio Bianchetti, born Villadossole (Italy), 15 June 1878, died Amsterdam, 16 January 1910, marries Amsterdam, b.s., 20 juli 1906 Antonia Johanna Maassen, born Amsterdam, 6 August 1878, died Amsterdam, 8 januari 1968.
11. Elly van Gelder: see: Joodsmonument.nl .
12. Henri Gotjé: see: bremermisjpoge ; Genealogie Zegerius , and: Gezinskaarten , Amsterdam, 1893-1939. The g.i.c.-paricipant might also be the son: Henri Christiaan Evert Gotjé, driver (chauffeur), marries Amsterdam, 1929 Carolina Charlotta Petronella Heeneman, divorce 1973.
14. Probably (not sure) Wilhelmus Arnoldus Matthias Hermanus Holtwijk, born Delft, 1904, moved to Amsterdam from The Hague, 1907; see:
15. Gerrit Jordens: his archives are conserved in the i.i.s.g. ; also
16. Jan Jans Krans; see: Gezinskaarten , Amsterdam, 1893-1939 (identified by the address).
18. Theo Maassen, see: Daad en Gedachte , nr. 6, June 1974, p. 15-17, followed by comments by Jaap Meulenkamp; and: Vele woningen, maar nergens een huis / Dennis Bos. – Amsterdam : Het spinhuis, 1996. – p. 53-55; and: Gezinskaarten , Amsterdam, 1893-1939; mentions: “calling himself Roossen” (“zich noemende Roossen”)
19. Jan Meijer, see: Gezinskaarten , Amsterdam, 1893-1939 (identified by the address).
20. Evert Nottrot, see: Gezinskaarten , Amsterdam, 1893-1939.
20a. Possibly (not sure) Claas Hendrik Karel Prins (Amsterdam, 1903-Bussum 1968), electrician, traveling salesman (handelsreiziger), painter (kunstschilder); marries Bussum, 1926 Catharina Magdalena Draaijer; son of Karel Frederik Prins, office worker (kantoorbediende), en Jannetje Leegwater.
22. Ben Sijes, see: Wikipedia (nl) ; Jaarboek van de Maatschappij der Nederlandse Letterkunde , 1987.
23. Ben Sijes, for a photograph of his parents: Joods Monument .
24. Leopold Smole (1888-), marries Cornelia Wessening; they had three children, one of whom was Leopold Smole, born 1915; see: Gezinskaarten , Amsterdam, 1893-1939.
25. Also see: Nederlandse vrijwilligers in de Spaanse Burgeroorlog .
26. Henk Stokvis, see: Gezinskaarten , Amsterdam, 1893-1939, Persoonskaarten , Amsterdam, 1939-1994; and: Woningkaarten , Amsterdam, 1924-1989 (identified by the address); in January 1953 he lived Juliana van Stolbergstraat 15-II, Amsterdam-West (Letter of Maximilien Rubel to Anton Pannekoek, Map 65).
27. Abraham Verduin, see: Gezinskaarten , Amsterdam, 1893-1939.
29. Tonny de Vink, see: Parenteel Finkenflugel, Vinkevleugel, De Vinck, de Vink .
30. Fie Zegerius, see: bremermisjpoge ; three sisters of hers were murdered in Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen.
31. Cajo Brendel, see a.o.: Radencommunisme en zelfstandige strijd / Cajo Brendel (interview). – Amsterdam : Rode Emma, 1998. – p. 20-27; also see: Cajo Brendel 1915-2007 / Henny Buiting; and: Cajo Brendel (1915-2007) / Marcel van der Linden, and also: Cajo Brendel (1915-2007) / Internationale Kommunistische Stroming [Vico], finally: Cajo Brendel zum Abschied / von Piet Rademakers, Hengelo (Nl.), with photo’s. In his book on Anton Pannekoek, Cajo Brendel stated that in the 1930’s he held “close relations” with the g.i.c.; he joined the group in The Hague in 1934. Also see: Cajo Brendel (1915-2007) / Marcel van der Linden. – In: Kritiek 2008 : Jaarboek voor socialistische Discussie en Analyse / geredigeerd door Bart van der Steen. – Amsterdam : Aksant, 2008. – 211 p. – p. 187-191.
32. Henk Eiting, see: Daad en Gedachte , nr. 7, juli 1969.
34. Coen Wiemer, see: Daad en Gedachte , nr. 9, september 1967.
35. Some information in: Het Belgisch trotskisme : De geschiedenis van een groep oppositionele kommunisten 1925-1940 / Nadya De Beule ; Inleiding door Herman Balthazar. – Gent : Jan Dhondt Stichting ; Masereelfonds, 1980; hoofdstuk: De “Ligue des Communistes Internationalistes”, p. 232-234; also see: Un siècle de Gauche communiste «italienne» (1915-2015) / Philippe Bourrinet.
36. Including: Het Grote Komplot – Le Grand Complot ; Stortingslijst van het archief van het Parket van de Procureur des Konings te Brussel (1918-1937) / Rik de Coninck. – [Gent] : Amsab, Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, 1998. – 211 p. In 1992 discovered in Moscow, Osoby or Special Archives, nowadays Centre for the Conservation of Historic-Documentary Collections (CChIDK); mainly on the years 1920-1923; microfiches are available, 7000 images.
37. Including: Catalogue des dossiers c.c.p. ; Répertoire des dossiers personels constitués par la Commission de contrôle politique du Parti communiste de Belgique, pour les fédérations de Wallonie et les militants francophones de la fédération de Bruxelles / par Milou Rikir, archiviste de CArCob. – Bruxelles: [CArCob], 1999 – 158 p. – [With Dutch language supplement for the Dutch-speaking provinces, 51 p.]; here quoted as “dossiers”.
Compiled by Vico, 12 October 2015, latest additions 24 September 2021
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