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Antonie Pannekoek Archives

de | Thema: Darwinismus, Anthropologie
en | Theme: Darwinism, Anthropology
fr | Thème: Darwinisme, Anthropologie
nl | Thema: Darwinisme, Antropologie


While within the Stalinist ideology Darwinism was rejected in favor of Lysenkoïsm, and in anthropology the determinist and mechanical theses of the unilinear “five stages” of development was maintained, there has been an alternative developped within the Communist Left. Here we aim to present these contributions.

It is difficult to study Darwinism without studying anthropology, and the other way around; there are too many analogies, and comparing the two learns a lot on method and classification. The two have too much in common, but they are also clearly distinct: the one applies to nature, the other to human society.

Some (non-Communist Left) external referential links

  • en | Darwin Online , everything Darwin wrote, in many languages.
  • en | The Talk Origins Archive , Exploring the Creation/Evolution Controversy (deceased in 2015); although “anti-ceationist” (a non-discussion), yet a valuable source of information (1).
  • fr | Alain Testart ; an exceptional “academic” white dove in modern anthropology, to be critically evaluated.

Darwinism and Marxism / Anton Pannekoek, 1909

The German and Dutch versions are to be considered as the original text, the English and French translation need correction. Translations in Estonian, Spanish, Rumanian and Ukrainien also exist. Only the Dutch version is annotated.

Anthropogenesis / Anton Pannekoek, 1945

The English and Dutch version are to be considered as the original text. Only the English version is annotated. Exists also in Esperanto, but not in German.



1. For the never ending sterile debate on “creationism” and “intelligent design”, see: Rocks of Ages : Relationship between religion and science / Stephen Jay Gould. – New York : Ballantine Books, 1999. – 256 p.; which can be read as a defence of science against religion, but also as a defence of religion against science; it makes however an end to many myths; and: The God delusion / Richard Dawkins. – London : Bantam Press, 2006. – 463 p., in which Darwinism is expanded beyond biology into an all embracing atheist ideology. The agnostic Thomas Huxley thought that the question whether God existed or not couldn’t be answered; for Charles Darwin the question was beyond our understanding: “one might just as well ask a dog to understand Newton”; for Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels the whole question needed to be criticised: why is it posed?

Compiled by Vico, 26 June 2018